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What Is Earth Orientation?
What Is Polar Motion?
What does the Earth rotation coordinate measure?
What is the Celestial Pole Offset?
What is a Leap Second?
How do we measure Earth Orientation?
What causes variations in the Earth's orientation?
Who uses Earth orientation information?
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The USNO Master Clock
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Global Positioning System Overview
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CGGTTS Data Format
USNO GPS Time Transfer
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GPS Week Number Rollover
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Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command
Captain Kim Freitas
Executive Officer, Naval Oceanographic Office
14 June 2022
Capt. Kim Freitas was born and raised in Vienna, Va., and graduated from the Pennsylvania State University in May 2000 with a Bachelor of Science degree in biology. She earned a Master of Science degree in meteorology and physical oceanography from the Naval Postgraduate School. She also attended the Joint Forces Staff College to complete her track as a Joint Qualified Officer.
Upon commissioning as a Surface Warfare Officer in 2000, she reported to USS Monterey (CG 61) as the first division officer / first lieutenant, training officer, and assistant operations officer. During this time, she completed participation in Operation Noble Eagle in response to the attacks on September 11, 2001, as well as deployments to South America in support of UNITAS and to U.S. Fifth Fleet in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Following her qualification as a surface warfare officer, Freitas transferred into the naval oceanography community in 2002.
Her shore duty assignments include serving as Optimum Track Ship Routing duty officer and command duty officer, Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Command in Yokosuka, Japan, from 2003-2004; flag aide to the Oceanographer of the Navy in Washington, D.C., from 2004-2005; shift director in the Situation Centre at Joint Force Command in Brunssum, Netherlands, from 2008-2010; and coordination officer and naval support officer for the NATO Integrated Meteorology and Oceanography Coordination Centre at Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe, in Casteau, Belgium, from 2010-2012. During her time at JFC Brunssum, she deployed to Kabul in support of International Security Assistance Force Afghanistan.
From 2015-2017, she served as the flag oceanographer for Carrier Strike Group Eight, embarked on USS Harry S. Truman (CVN 75), where she deployed in support of
Operation Inherent Resolve. She then reported as Seventh Fleet oceanographer embarked on USS Blue Ridge (LCC 19), from 2017-2020, participating in numerous exercises and engagements in support of U.S. Indo-Pacific Command tasking.
From 2012 to 2014, Freitas participated in the Navy’s Career Intermission Program and lived in Lisbon, Portugal, where her husband served in the Portuguese Navy.
Freitas took command of Strike Group Oceanography Team San Diego in 2020, where she served for two years, before reporting as executive officer of the Naval Oceanographic Office at Stennis Space Center, Miss., in May 2022.
Her personal awards include the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal, and the Navy Achievement Medal.
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